Harvesting and sowing seeds are activities as old as civilisation. Innovative products and technologies add value to these ancient practices, and bring new opportunities to New Zealand livestock farmers.
Grasslanz Technology Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of AgResearch. Grasslanz Technology develops, promotes and licences proprietary forage grasses and legumes, endophytes, and applied biotechnology to seed companies. These products are sold to farmers under licence from Grasslanz Technology by the seed companies.
Endophyte developments have been a major focus for Grasslanz Technology in recent years. Research undertaken by AgResearch (Grasslanz Technology’s parent company) in the endophyte area is world leading, and the technology has provided millions of dollars of benefit to New Zealand primary industries since the release of the novel endophyte AR1 in 2000. The research for the development of AR1 was a major team effort by mycologists, chemists, agronomists, entomologists and plant breeders. Research into the identification, understanding, testing and commercialisation of an endophyte strain takes the best part of 20 years.
The endophyte programme undertaken by Grasslanz Technology and AgResearch goes through a number of key stages. Endophytes have been isolated from grasses collected from around the world. They are identified and classified, and over the years a picture has developed as to how individual endophyte strains are related to one another. Once an endophyte strain is identified, the spectrum of chemical compounds it produces is determined, along with the impact these have on insects. Endophyte strains with a good range of insect tolerance are agronomically evaluated in a number of environments and various management styles. Endophytes that are agronomically as good or superior to standard (common toxic) endophytes are then subjected to intensive animal safety and performance testing. To be commercialised novel endophyte strains need to be superior to standard endophytes in these aspects of testing.
The final process is to develop seed production, processing, prolonged storage, and quality assurance systems. This is to ensure that the correct and a viable endophyte can be delivered to the farmer. It is important to remember that endophytes are a perishable product and a lot of care is required at the seed production, processing, and storage phases to ensure farmers actually receive the novel endophytes they purchase in their seed on their farms.
What is an endophyte?
Endophyte is a naturally occurring fungus whose complete life cycle occurs within grasses such as perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Most New Zealand ryegrass pastures are infected with endophyte. The endophyte fungus grows between the cells of the host plant, drawing nutrients from it but in return conferring resistance to insect pests, drought tolerance, and protection from overgrazing. Such a mutually beneficial relationship is known as symbiosis. Endophytes produce chemical compounds known as alkaloids, which confer pasture pest resistance, but which can also cause animal health problems. Peramine deters in particular feeding and egg laying of Argentine Stem Weevil, but has no known effects on animal health. LolitremB deter Argentine Stem Weevil larval feeding but cause Ryegrass Staggers. Ergovaline gives resistance to Black Beetle, but causes heat stress, especially in warm humid conditions
Novel endophytes are selected endophyte strains that have known and understood alkaloid chemical compound profiles. It is known what impact these compounds have on insect pests, the agronomic performance and persistence of the ryegrass and tall fescue plants, and the health and performance of animals grazing plants containing the novel endophyte strain. Novel endophytes can be incorporated into elite cultivar germplasm either by an inoculation process or by breeding and selecting with plants that contain the novel endophyte strain.
Endophyte strains commonly present in New Zealand ryegrass pastures contain the compounds lolitrems, peramines and ergovalines. The selected strain, ‘AR1’, contains peramine which gives tolerance to Argentine stem weevil and some tolerance to black beetle when plants are well established. AR1 does not contain lolitrem or ergovaline so that there is enhanced animal performance. Endo 5 contains peramine but no lolitrems. They do contain some level of ergovaline which allows for agronomic robustness, especially in areas where black beetle is an issue.
The most recent novel endophyte, ‘AR37’, does not contain lolitrems, peramine, or ergovaline, but does have a unique group of compounds called epoxy-janthitrems. Epoxy-janthitrems confer protection against a wide range of insect pests (Argentine stem weevil, black beetle, root aphid, pasture mealy bug and porina). A point of note is that AR37 controls the Black Beetle lifecycle at the adult stage rather than at the larval stage. Testing to date has shown ryegrass infected with AR37 to be more persistent and productive than pastures infected with standard endophyte, with livestock performance levels similar to AR1 and nil endophyte. While AR37 does not produce the alkaloid LolitremB it can cause ryegrass staggers in grazing livestock. In grazing trials at Lincoln the incidence of ryegrass staggers on pure ryegrass with AR37 has been less frequent and usually only half as severe as on ryegrass with standard endophyte. However, these trials have shown than spasmodically AR37 can cause serious staggers (Fletcher & Sutherland 2009: Proc NZGrassland Assn, 71: 127-33. However, to date no ryegrass staggers have been reported on any class of cattle on AR37 in trials or on commercial farms. Due to the fact that no trial work has been undertaken on deer and horses, pastures with AR37 are currently not recommended for those livestock classes or other untested species.
Novel endophytes are protected by patents
The development of novel endophytes is an expensive process over a long period of time, and they do offer farmers significant agronomic advantages and subsequent economic benefits. Due to these factors Grasslanz Technology and AgResearch have obtained Intellectual property protection in the form of patents.
What many farmers and seed growers may not be aware of, is that only companies who have a licence can produce or sell the cultivars containing novel endophytes. At the individual farmer level the patent means that seed containing novel endophytes like AR1 is protected by law. Farmers who harvest and re-sow or on-sell novel endophytes such as AR1 and AR37 to companies other than licence holders are very likely to be in breach of the patent and this may lead to prosecution under NZ law.
Choosing a Ryegrass Endophyte
Developed by Industry Endophyte Technical Committee and approved for use by NZPBRA Executive (22 September 2020)
Summary – Endophyte insect control
These ratings are indicative and may vary slightly between cultivars. If Argentine stem weevil or Black beetle are present at sowing, an appropriate seed treatment is recommended, to improve insect resistance during establishment.
Perennial Ryegrass, Festulolium, Italian and Short-Term (Hybrid) Ryegrass and Continental Tall Fescue
|Key to Tables|
|+||Low level control: Endophyte may provide a measureable effect, but is unlikely to give any practical control.|
|++||Moderate control: Endophyte may provide some practical protection, with a low to moderate reduction in insect population.|
|+++||Good control: Endophyte markedly reduces insect damage under low to moderate insect pressures. Damage may still occur when insect pressure is high.|
|++++||Very good control: Endophyte consistently reduces insect populations and keeps pasture damage to low levels, even under high insect pressure.|
|()||Provisional result: Further results needed to support the rating. Testing is ongoing.|
|Argentine stem weevil||Pasture mealy bug||Black beetle adult||Root aphid||Porina||Grass grub||Field cricket|
|Diploid perennial ryegrass|
|NEA2||+++||(++++)||+++||++||Not tested||-||Not tested|
|NEA4||+++||(++++)||+++||++||Not tested||Not tested||Not tested|
|Tetraploid perennial ryegrass|
|Italian and short term (hybrid) ryegrass|
|AR1||++||(++++)||+||-2||Not tested||-||Not tested|
|NEA||Not tested||(++++)||+++||Not tested||Not tested||-||Not tested|
|AR37||+++1||(++++)||+++||Not tested||Not tested||-||Not tested|
|Continental tall fescue|
|MaxP (AR584)||Not tested||Not tested||+++||(++++)||Not tested||(++)||+++|
Notes on tables
¹ AR37 endophyte controls Argentine stem weevil larvae, but not adults. While larvae cause most damage to pastures, adults can damage emerging grass seedlings. In Argentine stem weevil prone areas it is recommended to use treated seed for all cultivars with novel endophyte.
² AR1 plants are more susceptible to root aphid than plants without endophyte.
³ Also active against black beetle larvae.
Summary – Endophyte animal safety
These ratings are indicative. Animal performance and health can vary under different management systems between seasons.
Perennial Ryegrass, Festulolium and Continental Tall Fescue
The information in this table is based on animal safety trialling protocols dedsigned to expose animals to simulated worst-case scenario managment. This involves forcing them to graze deep into the base of pur perennial ryegrass pastures that have been allowed to grow for several weeks over late spring/summer (similar to a hay crop) where they will encounter the highest concentrations of harmful endophyte chemicals if these are present.
This management does not represent normal farm practice although similar situations may arise on farms in rare circumstances. Under normal farm grazing practices, the contribution of basal pasture material to total animal dry matter intake is relatively low and therefore the intake of harmful chemicals (if they are present) is diluted. Thus, the likelihood of adverse effects on animals is reduced, but the potential for problems to occur may still exist if the endophyte brand is rated > 4-star for 'freedom from staggers' and/or there are comments on animal performance which flag potential issues.
Comments on animal performance have been moderated based on information from other trials (in addition to the formal animal safety testing protocols), consideration of the 'normal' grazing management practices implemented on farm (see previous paragraph), and recognition that animal diets are very seldom pure ryegrass. Other dietary components such as clovers or non-ryegrass grass species, crops or supplements will dilute the intake of endophyte alkaloids.
|Key to ryegrass staggers ratings|
|+||Likely to cause severe staggers in most years|
|++||Can cause severe staggers in some years|
|+++||Can cause severe staggers occasionally|
|++++||Very unlikely to cause staggers|
|Endophyte brand||Freedom from staggers||Effects on animal performance|
|Sheep and lambs||Cattle and dairy cows|
|AR1||++++||++++||High level of animal performance|
Typically provides a high level of animal performance.
Can cause ryegrass staggers in sheep and lambs in extreme circumstances. Lamb liveweight gain can be reduced during periods of severe staggers.
While ryegrass staggers has not been observed in cattle and dairy cows, it could occur on rare occasions.
|++++||++++||High level of animal performance|
Typicallly provides a high level of animal performance
Lamb liveweight gain could be reduced in extreme circumstances.
While no effects have been observed in cattle and dairy cows, body temperature could be elecated on rare occasions.
Typically provides a high level of animal performance.
Lamb liveweight gain could be reduced in extreme corcumstances.
While no effects have been observed in cattle and dairy cows, body temperature could be elevated on rare occasions.
|U2||++++||++++||High level of animal performance|
|MaxP (AR584)||++++||++++||High level of animal performance|
Can cause ryegrass staggers in sheep and lambs, and significantly decrease lamb growth rates in summer and autumn, and significantly increase dags.
In dairy cows, it has been dhown to depress milksolids production through summer and autumn.
|Without endophyte||++++||++++||High level of animal performance|